Collection Closed for Renovations to Building’s Exterior

The Collection’s home at 15 Hillhouse Avenue is currently undergoing renovation. As a consequence, the museum is closed to the public until February 2020. Staff may be reached by telephone or email.

Telephone: 203 432 0822


William Purvis, Director

Susan E. Thompson, Curator

Christina Linsenmeyer, Associate Curator

Timothy Feil, Program Coordinator

Will Robbins

Published November 13, 2019
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Christina Linsenmeyer appointed Associate Curator of the Collection of Musical Instruments

Christina Linsenmeyer

Robert Blocker, Dean of the Yale School of Music, has recently announced that Christina Linsenmeyer will join the staff of the Yale University Collection of Musical Instruments in May 2019. Below is his announcement to the Yale community:

Dear colleagues,

I am pleased to announce that Christina Linsenmeyer has been appointed Associate Curator at the Yale Collection of Musical Instruments and will begin her work in May. “Christina’s deep knowledge and broad perspective will contribute to our mission the moment she joins our team,” Collection Director William Purvis said.

Most recently, Dr. Linsenmeyer worked as a researcher at the Sibelius Academy at the University of the Arts Helsinki, in Finland. She was a founding Curator and served as interim Head of Curatorial Affairs at the Musical Instrument Museum in Phoenix, Arizona.

Dr. Linsenmeyer earned a doctorate in musicology from Washington University in St. Louis, a diploma in violin-making from the North Bennet Street School in Boston, and a bachelor of arts degree with honors in music from Colgate University in Hamilton, New York. She is passionate about cultural history and the arts and has spent the past two decades specializing in musical-instrument museums and organology. Dr. Linsenmeyer has also explored transdisciplinary approaches to the visual and aural aspects of music history and the intersections of aesthetics, social history, and material culture.

A contributor to numerous international publications, she has made presentations at such notable institutions as the Germanisches Nationalmuseum in Nuremberg, the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, the St. Petersburg International Cultural Forum, the University of Edinburgh’s Musical Instrument Collection, and the Violin Society of America. She is the Secretary of the International Council of Museums’ International Committee for Museums and Collections of Instruments and Music.

Please join me in welcoming Dr. Linsenmeyer.

Warmest regards,

Robert Blocker
The Henry and Lucy Moses Dean of Music
Yale School of Music

Published April 17, 2019
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On Tuesday, April 16 at 4pm DMA candidate Jonathan Salamon (‘23 YSM) will present his lecture-recital, Rediscovering Marianna Martines, Composer and Performer in the Vienna of Haydn and Mozart.

Marianna Martines (1744-1812) was an important and widely-admired figure in her day who dropped into obscurity after her death. A four-hands sonata partner of W.A. Mozart’s at musical parties, she was praised for her beautiful singing, virtuosic keyboard playing, and prodigious skill as a composer. This lecture-recital examines Martines’s place in music history at the crossroads of the classical style in Vienna and concludes with a performance of her harpsichord sonata in A, Op. 5 (1765).

Jonathan Salamon is completing his second year of the Doctor of Musical Arts program in harpsichord at the Yale School of Music, where he also earned his Master of Music degree. A native of Connecticut and New York City, Jonathan received his bachelor’s degree from New York University. He teaches secondary harpsichord students at Yale and has presented lecture-recitals at the Yale Collection of Musical Instruments and at the Historical Keyboard Society of North America’s 2018 conference. Most recently, he presented his DMA thesis at Temple University’s 2019 THEMUS Conference. His research and performance interests include classical improvisation, galant schemata theory, the music of J.S. Bach, and baroque performance practice.

Published April 11, 2019
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Requiescat in pace – Frank Rutkowski


Requiescat in pace
Francis Edwin “Frank” Rutkowski
12 December 1932 – 18 January 2019

Builder and Restorer of Harpsichords
Jersey City, New Jersey

Conservator of Harpsichords, Virginals and Clavichords
Yale University Collection of Musical Instruments

Audio clip and score:
Louis Couperin, Pièces de clavecin ré mineur, Prélude (unmeasured) (2:06 minutes)

Harpsichord by Rutkowski & Robinette, Jersey City, New Jersey, 1985
Richard Rephann, harpsichordist
Yves A. Feder, recording engineer (live performance) / Sunday, 3 February 2003
Éditions de l’Oiseau-Lyre (Paul Brunold / Davitt Moroney, editors)






Published January 22, 2019
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[ 2018-19 Concert Series ]

2018-19 Concert Series

Last year, the Collection celebrated the historic fiftieth anniversary of its annual concert series in grand style featuring staff favorite Paolo Pandolfo, and ending with an all-Schubert program in collaboration with the Smithsonian Institution.  For the fifty-first season, the collection will continue to offer a distinguished slate of historical-context performances.

The critically acclaimed harpsichordist Władysław Kłosiewicz will open the Collection’s concert series on October 7 with a tribute to Wanda Landowska (1879-1959), a Polish harpsichordist whose performances, recordings, teachings, and writings greatly in uenced the revival of the instrument in the early twentieth century.

Born in Warsaw in 1955, Kłosiewicz became enamored with the harpsichord in his youth. During his teens and twenties, he studied at the Warsaw Academy
of Music under the tutelage of Julitty Sleńdzińskiej, and at the Accademia Musicale Chigiana, in Siena, Italy, under Ruggero Gerlin, who had been a close associate of Landowska.

In 1978, Kłosiewicz was invited to perform with the Polish Chamber Orchestra under Jerzy Maksymiuk, an opportunity that launched his career. For the past forty years, he has participated in the establishment and artistic direction of such period ensembles as the Concerto Avenna and Musica Antiquae Collegium Varsoviense and has been instrumental in producing the collected stage works of Claudio Monteverdi with the Warsaw Chamber Opera. As both a soloist and a chamber musician, Kłosiewicz has won numerous prizes in the categories of musical interpretation, basso continuo realization, and the performance of contemporary music.

In 1984, he was awarded first prize in harpsichord at the prestigious ARD International Music Competition in Munich, when no second or third prize was awarded. Kłosiewicz’s many recordings include the complete harpsichord works of François Couperin, Jean-Philippe Rameau, and Johann Jakob Froberger, the partitas of
J.S. Bach, and the sonatas of Domenico Scarlatti. His recording of Bach’s “Goldberg” Variations for the Pro Academia Narolense Foundation received the Fryderyk prize (Poland’s highest music award) in 2000.

Kłosiewicz’s program at the collection, “Landowska in Memoriam,” will include works by J. J. Froberger, L. Couperin, F. Couperin, and J.S. Bach. Sponsorship is provided in part by the Adam Mickiewicz Institute.

On November 4, the Collection will welcome the Dark Horse Consort for the ensemble’s rst visit to Yale. Inspired by the bronze horse statues in Venice’s famed St. Mark’s Basilica, the ensemble attempts to recreate the glorious sounds of such composers as Giovanni Gabrieli, Claudio Monteverdi, and Heinrich Schütz.

Hailed as “stellar” by The New York Timesand “splendid” by The Boston Globe, the early music ensemble is dedicated to unearthing the majestic late Renaissance and early Baroque repertoire for brass instruments. The program, “The Golden Age of Brass: Seventeenth Century Music of Germany, England, and Italy,” will include works by Speer, Scheidt, Locke, Byrd, Adson, Hammerschmidt, Vierdanck, de Wert, Gabrieli, and Merulo. Members of the Dark Horse Consort appearing on this program will include cornettists Kiri Tollaksen and Alexandra Opsahl, and sackbutists Greg Ingles, Erik Schmalz, and Mack Ramsey.

The Boreas Quartett Bremen makes its debut appearance at the Collection on February 3, 2019, when recorder players Jin-Ju Baek, Elisabeth Champollion, Julia Fritz, and Luise Manske will be joined by their mentor Han Tol in a performance of music from the sixteenth century to the present.

The group formed at the Hochschule für Künste, in Bremen, Germany, where they studied with Tol, the internationally renowned Dutch recorder virtuoso, teacher, and conductor. The ensemble takes its name from Boreas, the Greek god of the north wind.

Since their student days, the quartet has maintained an active performance schedule beyond Germany, playing in South Korea, Taiwan, the Czech Republic, Austria, Italy, the Netherlands, and Switzerland. Together, the quartet’s members have acquired more than forty recorders of different sizes and design, including a twelve-piece Renaissance consort by Peter van der Poel of Utrecht. Other recorders in their collection were made by Ralf Ehlert, Francesco Li Virghi, and Luca de Paolis.

In 2015, the ensemble released a CD on the German music label classic production osnabrück (cpo) featuring Han Tol in a recording of the twenty-one In Nomines by Christopher Tye (c. 1505-before 1573). The Boreas Quartett Bremen is supported by the “Laudate, Cantate” foundation and the Heinz-Peter and Annelotte Koch Foundation, both located in Bremen.

The Collection will present Steven Isserlis and Robert Levin in a program of works for cello and fortepiano by Beethoven on February 24. Lauded for his probing musicianship and instrumental virtuosity, British cellist Steven Isserlis enjoys a uniquely varied career as a soloist, chamber musician, author, educator, and broadcaster. He has a strong interest in historical performance, working with many period-instrument ensembles and giving recitals with harpsichord and fortepiano. Pianist Robert Levin is heard throughout the United States and abroad in recital, as a soloist and in chamber music concerts. Equally at home on modern piano, fortepiano, and harpsichord, he is also an authoritative scholar of the Baroque and Classical periods, and of Mozart in particular.

Isserlis and Levin are frequent duo partners. The New York Times praised one of their Beethoven recitals, offering, “Not surprising given their experience together and their continuing partnership, Mr. Isserlis and Mr. Levin proved kindred spirits, each matching the other’s phrases in temperament and dynamics, right down to the quietest turn of phrase. But what was most impressive — and Beethovenian — was the power of their climaxes, especially in the A major.”

After five years, the celebrated ensemble Quicksilver Baroque will return to the Collection on March 31 to present a program titled “Violini a Due: An Italian Journey.” On this dazzling musical trip, Quicksilver will take collection audience members to the cradle of the virtuoso violin through its rich development, from Castello to Corelli. Of the group’s most recent recording, Fantasticus: Extravagant and Virtuosic Music from 17th Century Germany, Gramophone wrote, “Quicksilver signi es something unpredictable and swiftly responsive. It’s the perfect name for an ensemble that demands exceptional instrumental skills … Many of the works contain surprises around every corner, as the composers let their imaginations soar through curious shifts of meter, harmony and form that jolt and delight the ears in equal measure. But extravagance and virtuosity are also employed to more subtle effect with the players spinning long lines coloured by delicately applied ornaments, and altering dynamics and phrasing to highlight the music’s expressive beauty … Fantasticus, indeed!”

Click on Concert Sereies out this link for ticket information:

Published September 11, 2018
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[ Exhibits ]

Yale CMI Lends Two Objects to the Yale Center for British Art for Display in its Exhibit

The seventeenth-century painting The Paston Treasure (ca. 1663) is an enigmatic masterpiece. Commissioned by either Sir William Paston, first Baronet (1610–1663), or his son Robert Paston, first Earl of Yarmouth (1631–1683), the identity of the painter, a Dutch itinerant artist working out of a makeshift studio at Oxnead Hall, remains unresolved, although candidates have been proposed. Adding to its mystique, the painting defies categorization because it combines several art historical genres: still life, portraiture, animal painting, and allegory. It has provided the opportunity to think anew about seventeenth-century studio practice and the painter-patron relationship. The painting now makes its North American debut at the Yale Center for British Art in an exhibition organized in partnership with the Norwich Castle Museum & Art Gallery, UK.

Exploring the world of the Pastons, a landowning family of Norfolk famous for their medieval letters, this display includes nearly 140 objects from more than fifty international institutional and private lenders. On view are five treasures from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries that appear in The Paston Treasure painting: one of a pair of silver-gilt flagons, a Strombus shell cup, two unique nautilus cups, and a perfume flask with a mother-of-pearl body, which are gathered together for the first time in more than three centuries. A host of other objects, many with Paston provenance, tell the rich story of collecting within the family from the medieval period until the moment of the making of the painting.

The Collection of Musical Instruments has lent two objects to the exhibit, each resembling musical instruments in the painting: a violin by Pieter Rombouts (1667 – 1740), Amsterdam, c. 1700, and a Baroque-style bow by contem- porary maker David Hawthorne, Cambridge, Massachusetts, c. 2011. It is difficult to say whether the violin in the painting was inspired by an English, Dutch or Italian example, as none of the Paston family’s violins has survived. In any case, the exaggerated corners and seemingly oversized f-holes of the instrument suggest that the painter may have exercised artistic license in depicting these particular features.

The Hawthorne bow is modeled after a “short” bow, ca. 1680, in the collection of Robert Seletsky.  The replica has a round, snakewood stick; clip-in, pernambuco frog; and black hair.

The Paston Treasure exhibition is on display now through Sunday, May 27th.

Published May 2, 2018
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Serpent and Ophicleide Exhibit


D’Almaine and Company
London, 1834-1858

Inscribed on the scalloped brass ferrule at the upper end of the tube:
D’Almaine & Co. / 20 Soho Sq. London

The serpent is a wind instrument that is sounded through a lip-vibrated mouthpiece.  The bass member of the cornetto family of instruments, it is believed to have come into existence ca. 1590 at the hands of Edmé Guillaume, a canon of Auxerre.  Initially, the instrument was used to reinforce the male voices of Gregorian chant.  Later, it served as a bass instrument in military bands, civic ensembles and, eventually, symphony orchestras.

​The serpent’s body is sometimes made from a number of short pieces of wood (often walnut) that have been hollowed out, joined together and covered with leather.  An alternative method of construction consists of hollowing out two complete halves of the instrument, gluing these together and covering the whole with leather.  The instrument’s serpentine shape brings the instrument’s finger holes and mouthpiece within reach of the player.  Its adjustable, brass extendor (or crook) allows the player to hold the instrument vertically, horizontally or at any angle.
Today, the serpent is rarely heard in performance, yet it is still enjoyed by a small number of players, including members of the London Serpent Trio (Phil Humphries, Andy Kershaw, and Nicholas Perry), Michel Godard, Patrick Wibart, and Douglas Yeo – retired bass trombonist from the Boston Symphony Orchestra.  
Although the instrument functioned as a fundamental member of the wind section, it has not always been held in high esteem.  The French composer and conductor Hector Berlioz wrote in his Treatise on Instrumentation (rev. Richard Strauss, trans. Theodore Front): 
The essentially barbaric tone of this instrument would be much better suited for the bloody cult of the Druids than for that of the Catholic church, where it is still in use — as a monstrous symbol for the lack of understanding and the coarseness of taste and feeling which have governed the application of music in our churches since times immemorial.  Only one case is to be excepted: masses for the dead, where the serpent serves to double the dreadful choir of the Dies Irae.  Here its cold and awful blaring is doubtless appropriate…

On the other hand, serpentist Douglas Yeo points out a more positive quote about the serpent from Thomas Hardy’s, Under the Greenwood Tree (1872), “‘Yet there’s worse things than serpents,’ said Mr. Penny. ‘Old things pass away, ’tis true; but a serpent was a good old note; a deep, rich note was the serpent.'”

Click on the PDF link below to see a page excerpt from Marin Mersenne’s Harmonie universelle (1636) that depicts the serpent.

Mersenne Serpent Excerpt

Gift of Mr. Corning White
Accession Number 3676.1976

Speical thanks to Douglas Yeo and The London Serpent Trio for providing source material!

The London Serpent Trio

Click the link below to see a concert program, instrument description, and press release from the London Serpent Trio’s 1989 performance at Yale’s Collection of Musical Instruments.

London Serpent Trio Promotional Materials

To hear how the serpent sounds, listen to this YouTube clip of the London Serpent Trio.



Unknown maker
Probably French, early 19th century

The ophicleide was designed to be an improvement upon the serpent.  Its name comes from the Greek words “ophis” and “kleid,” meaning “serpent” and “keyed.”  This example is made of brass in five sections: mouthpiece, crook, wing (or tenor) joint, U-joint, long (or bass) joint flaring into bell.  The keys are activated by flat brass springs.

Like the serpent, the ophicleide was used in military bands.  Once it came to the attention of composers such as Hector Berlioz, Richard Wagner, and Felix Mendelssohn, it appeard in orcehstral scores.  In his original manuscript of Symphonie Fantastique, Berlioz made use of both the ophicleide and serpent in the fifth movement, where the two instruments play the Dies Irae chant in unison.  After the invention of the tuba, the ophicleide gradually fell from use.


Given in memory of Harold Sears Arnold, MD, by his wife and children: Mars. Harld Sears Arnold (nee Justine Ingersoll), Charles Ingersoll Arnold, Justine Arnold Linforth, and Anne Arnold Hunt
Accession Number 3660.1971

Click on this PDF link to see some excerpts from Felix Mendelssohn’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream, op. 21 to see the ophicleide part:

Mendelssohn’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream Score

Méthode de Serpent

Pour le Service du Culte et le Service Militaire
trans: Serpent Method – for the service of worship and military service

This method book was written by three authors: Nicolas Roze, the librarian of the Conservatoire de Paris, François-Joseph Gossec, a composer, and Étienne Ozi, a bassoonist. The Conservatoire released the Méthode de Serpent in 1814, despite having discontinued serpent classes in 1802.

Click on the PDF links below to view more pages from the 1974 Minkoff reprint of Méthode de Serpent.

Cover Pages

Serpent Etudes

On loan from Yale Music Library
MT 520 M592+


Use of the serpent and the ophicleide in Symphonie Fantastique and other works

In Hector Berlioz’s Treatise on Instrumentation, he wrote about the serpent, “The essentially barbaric tone of this instrument would be much better suited for the bloody cult of the Druids than for that of the Catholic church.  Only one case is to be excepted: masses for the dead, where the serpent serves to double the dreadful choir of the Dies Irae.”  In his piece, Symphonie Fantastique, he used the Dies Irae chant as a theme in the fifth movement and scored for both the serpent and ophicleide to play the chant in his original 1830 score.  Below are page excerpts from his manuscript where the two instruments play in unison.

Symphonie Fantastique 1830 Manuscript

The serpent was also known to composers such as Joseph Haydn, Ludwig van Beethoven, and George Frideric Handel.   Haydn scored for the serpent in his Divertimento in F Major, Hob. II:45 and Beethoven found use for the serpent in his March for Military Band, WoO24.  It is believed that Handel originally wrote a part for the serpent in his Music for the Royal Fireworks, but then crossed it out.  Below you will see a PDF link to the first page of the score to Music for the Royal Fireworks, and at the bottom of the page you can see the supposed crossed out serpent part.

Score Music for Royal Fireworks

-Timothy Feil, Museum Intern

Published March 16, 2018
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[ Russian Bassoon Description ]

Russian Bassoon

Russian Bassoon

Fratelli Garignani (Garignani Brothers)
Milan, Italy, ca. 1820

The term “Russian Bassoon” is something of a misnomer, for this instrument is neither Russian nor bassoon.  Rather, it is technically a bass-horn that has a lip-vibrated mouthpiece instead of a double reed.  Because it was used in the Prussian Army, it maybe have acquired the name “Russian” from that association.

Its invention is credited to J. J. Regibo of France as an improvement on the 16th century serpent.  It was shaped to be easier to carry and play while marching than the serpent.  After 1815, the bass-horn became popular in Europe and was a regular member of military bands throughout Europe until about 1830.  Eventually, the ophicleide then the tuba and sousaphone superseded the bass-horn in marching bands.

The bassoon-like body of this instrument is made of maple in three joints.  The ends of the joints are covered with brass ferrules.  The crook and the mouthpiece are made of brass and the serpent head bell is metal.  There are six finger holes and one thumbhole for the left hand; in addition, there are three holes that are covered by keys.  Not all Russian Bassoons have a decorated serpent head bell, which was likely added to be more decorative than the more usual flaired, brass bell.  The Buccin is another instrument from this era to have a decorative serpent head.

The Belle Skinner Collection
Accession Number 3659.1960


The Russian Bassoon in Orchestration

From Hector Berlioz’s Treatise on Instrumentation (rev. Richard Strauss, trans. Theodore Front), Berlioz writes that the Russian Bassoon is “related to the serpent” and “lacks steadiness and hence purity of intonation.  In my opinion it might be dropped from the family of wind instruments withouth the least injury to the art.”  He then goes on to explain the instrument’s range.1

For an expandable view, click the link below:

Berlioz Russian Bassoon Description

The Invention of the Russian Bassoon

According to Grove Music Online, “Its origin may be found in Régibo’s serpent, which was announced in Framery’s Calendrier universel musical for 1789 in the following terms:

J.J. Régibo, Musicien à la Collégiale de St. Pierre à Lille, vient d’inventer un serpent nouveau qui est fait de même qu’un basson; il se démonte en trois parties et est plus fort que le serpent ordinaire, et plus aisé à jouer; il a la même embouchure, est du même diapason et même gamme. Il a été présenté à MM. du Chapître dans une musique à grande symphonie, et a fait l’admiration des auditeurs par son effet; ils l’ont reçu dans leur musique ordinaire. Ceux qui veulent s’en procurer peuvent s’adresser à l’auteur, rue Pétérinck, Paroisse St. Pierre à Lille. Le prix est 3 louis.”2

Translation from Google Translate:

J.J. Régibo, Musician at the Collegiate Church of St. Pierre in Lille, has invented a new snake which is made like a bassoon; it is disassembled into three parts and is stronger than the ordinary serpent, and easier to play; it has the same mouthpiece, is of the same tuning fork and even range. He was introduced to MM. of the Chapter in a music of great symphony, and admired by listeners for its effect; they received it in their ordinary music. Those who want to get some can contact the author, rue Pétérinck, Paroisse St. Pierre in Lille. The price is 3 louis.



-Timothy Feil, Museum Intern



1. Berlioz, Hector. Treatise on Instrumentation, Enl. and Rev. Edited by Richard Strauss. Translated by Theodore Front, E.F. Kalmus, 1948.

2. Morley-Pegge, R. (2001). Russian bassoon. Grove Music Online. Retrieved 12 Apr. 2018, from


Published March 15, 2018
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[ exhibits ]

November’s Instrument of the Month

In preparation for a forthcoming exhibit of brass instruments, the Yale Collection of Musical Instruments is displaying these post horns as November’s instrument of the month.

Gift of Dr. and Mrs. Joseph M. Dworkin. Accession no. 3602 and 3603.

The instruments are made of copper and brass which are soldered together into a single coil. These instruments are made in coiled form for carrying in the pocket.

The post horn is scored for in Mozart’s Serenade for Orchestra No. 9 in D Major, which was later nicknamed “Posthorn” for its short post horn solo in the second trio of the Minuetto movement. The post horn is also referenced in Schubert’s Die Post from Winterreise when the piano accompaniment includes a post horn-like fanfare. Also, in Gustav Mahler’s Symphony No. 3 in d minor, Mahler writes a solo part that is supposed to resemble the sound of the post horn. Today, that solo is often played on a Fürst Pless post horn (with rotary valves), Flugelhorn, or Trumpet.


The stamp pictured to the left was featured in the MOPHILA International Stamp Exhibition in Hamburg (1985) for modern stamp collecting, or Moderne Philatelie, from which MOPHILA takes its name.



Come to 15 Hillhouse Avenue to view these two post horns in person or visit our Digital Collection to see our entire collection.





Published November 12, 2017
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[ Exhibits ]

October’s Instrument of the Month

This month, the Collection of Musical Instruments is displaying a Sea Dragon Horn as its featured instrument. Traditionally referred to as the Dbang Dung, this Eastern Tibetan horn is a little more than a foot in length with a brass mouth piece indicative of an early brass horn. The narrow body terminates in the head of a serpent with jaw opened wide and a thin brass tongue poking out. Made primarily from light brass and possibly other metal alloys, it has what appears to be three shades of metal coloration. It is unclear whether these colors are due to discoloration over time or purposeful. Turquoise gemstones adorn the dragon’s head. Believed to be acquired sometime before the Chinese invaded Tibet in the 1950s, the Sea Dragon Horn was used in rural areas to call the attention of townfolk to ceremonies and festive occasions.

The Sea Dragon, known in Sanskrit as Makara, is a common mythological being relevant in both Hindu and Buddhist iconography. In Hindu mythology, the Sea Dragon is the animal-vehicle of the Hindu God Ganga, the River Goddess. Tibetan Buddhism, on the other hand, developed a rather different view of the Sea Dragon as a symbolic weapon. Sea Dragons remain viewed as creatures of great tenacity and strength in Tibet.

The Dbang Dung was donated to the Collection by Theodore Woolsey Heermance along with many other instruments within his possession in the 1980s.

We invite you to come to 15 Hillhouse Avenue to view the Dbang Dung in person before it returns to our holdings!


Published October 10, 2017
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